Category Archives: Spring Semester

MGMT 4/18

Chapter 15: Communication and Control

What is Communication

  • process by which information is exchanged and understood by 2 or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior
  • Manager: 80% every working day in direct communication with others
  • Manager: 20% every work day in communication in the form of reading and writing (12 minutes/hour
  • it is a two way street

Communication Process Model

  • Sender: encodes message (trying to communicate/convey with email, phone, face-to-face, radio, internet)
  • Receiver: decodes message (gets and tries to interpret information)
  • Channel: return the message encoded
  • Communication noise: communication barriers (the telephone game)
  • Feedback Loop: the receiver responds to the sender by creating a return message; with feedback, communication is two ways

Channel Richness: the amount of information that is transmitted during a communication episode (pyramid on ppt)(from top to bottom

  • Face-to-face talk: fast feedback, body language
  • telephone
  • email, IM, intranet
  • memos, letters
  • formal reports, bulletins: slow feedback

formal Channels of Communication (3 channels)

  • Upward Communication: problems and exceptions; suggestions for improvement; performance reports; grievances and disputes; financial and accounting information
  • (Horizontal) Coordination: Intradepartmental problem solving; interdepartmental coordination, change initiatives and improvements
  • Downward Communication: implementation of goals & strategies; job instructions/rationale; procedures & practices; performance feedback; indoctrination(look up)

Organizational Control Focus

  • Feedforward Control
  • Concurrent Control
  • Feedback Control
  • Organizational control is monitoring progress in order to attain a goal (definition)

Feedforward Control

  • Focus is on: human resources, material resources, and financial resources
  • Purpose: identify and prevent deviations
  • Sometimes called preliminary or preventative control
  • ex. pre-employment drug testing, inspect raw materials, hire only college graduates
  • Focuses on inputs

Concurrent Control

  • Monitors ongoing activities to ensure consistency with performance standards
  • Assesses current work activities (evaluate performance)
  • relies on performance standards (formulate and maintain standards)
  • includes rules and regulations (managers must communicate the regulations)
  • ex. adaptive culture, employee self-control, total quality management
  • is focused on ongoing processes

Feedback Control

  • Focus: organization’s outputs (products)
  • sometimes called post action control or output control
  • after the problem occurs
  • ex. performance evaluation, survey customers, final quality inspection
  • focus is on output

Feedback control Model Four steps

  1. Establish standards of standards
  2. measure actual performance
  3. compare performance to standards
  4. if adequate: do nothing or provide reinforcement; if inadequate: take corrective action (adjust standards or performance)
  5. get the rest of the ppt chart

Chapters for TEST: 1, 3, 5, 10, 14, 15

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MGMT 4/11

Chapter 14 Continued

Path-Goal Theory

  • leaders can increase subordinate satisfaction and performance by clarifying and clearing the paths to goals and by increasing the number and kinds of rewards available for goal attainment

4 leadership styles in Path-Goal

  • supportive: friendly and approachable
  • Directive: clarifying expectations and deadlines
  • Achievement-Oriented: setting challenging goals
  • Participative: allowing input on decisions

Leading Change

  • Transactional Leadership
  • Transformational Leadership (better in leading changes)

Transactional Leadership

  • Clarify the role and task requirements of subordinates
  • initiate structure
  • provide appropriate rewards
  • display consideration for subordinates

Transformational Leadership

  • Generates awareness and acceptance of group’s purpose and mission
  • get followers to accomplish more than they intended or thought possible

Leadership at McDonalds and P.F. Changs

  • Where does the leadership at McDonald’s fall on the Leadership Grid?
  • Describe some of Rick Federico’s personal traits:
  • Would you characterize Rick as transactional or transformational leader?

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MGMT 4/9

Chapter 14: Leadership

The Nature of Leadership

  1. Occurs among people
  2. involves the use of influence (direct behavior)
  3. is used to attain goals
  4. the ability to influence people to attain goals

Leadership Traits Theory

  • Traits: early efforts to understand leadership success focuses on leader’s personal characteristics
  • Great Man Approach: early research focused on leaders who had achieved a level of greatness
  • Steps to Great Man Approach: find out what made them great & find people with the same traits

Leadership Traits

  1. Drive: achievement, success, motivation
  2. Desire to Lead: desire to motivate others
  3. Honesty & Integrity: must be honest, otherwise they cannot be trusted
  4. Self-Confidence: must believe in their own abilities
  5. Emotional Stability: remain calm
  6. Cognitive ability: problem solving
  7. Knowledge of business: knowledge of business trends; how they make key decisions

Behavioral Approaches: Ohio State Studies 4 leadership styles

  • Consideration: people-oriented behavior; mindful of subordinates; establishes mutual trust (classified both by high and low)
  • Initiating Structure: task-oriented behavior; directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment; typically gives instructions, spends time planning, and emphasizes deadlines (classified in high and low)
  • When both are high, that is the most efficient outcome

Behavioral Approaches: Michigan Studies

  • University of Michigan compared the behavior of effective and ineffective supervisors
  • Employee centered leaders: high concern about employees; help employees to solve problems; motivate employees; more effective
  • Job-Centered Leaders: focus on job productivity; give clear job instructions; human relations not important

Behavioral Approaches: Leadership Grid (University of Texas)

  • Builds on the work of Ohio State and Michigan studies
  • Two-dimensional leadership theory that measures the leader’s concern for people and for production
  • people + production (similar to other 2 studies)
  • 9 point scale (low to high)
  • Five leadership styles/li>;;;

The five leadership Styles in Leadership Grid

  1. Authority-Compliance: efficiency in operation results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree (9,1) on graph
  2. Country Club Management: Thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo (1,9) on graph
  3. Middle-of-the-Road Management: Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level
  4. Team Management: work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect
  5. Impoverished Management: Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization

Contingency Approaches

  • Relationship between leadership styles and situations (3 theories)

Situational theory (contingency)

  • focus on employees (because the employees carry out the leader’s effectiveness)
  • Two Dimensions: task behavior and relationship behavior
  • 4 styles: delegating (low relation, low behavior), telling (low r, high b), participating (high r, low b), selling (high r, high b)
  • follower readiness: the degree to which people are willing and able to follow directions
  • get graph from ppt

Contingency theory (2nd contingency theory)

  • leaders need to know whether they have a relationship- or task-oriented style
  • leaders should diagnose the situation and determine the favorableness of the following three areas: leader-member relations, Task structure, Leader position power
  • Task-oriented leaders are more effective when the situation os either highly favorable or highly unfavorable
  • Relationship-oriented leaders are more effective in situations of moderate favorability
  • cannot change persons leadership style… must change situation or replace the leader

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MGMT 4/2

Chapter 13

2nd process motivation theory: Expectancy Theory

  • Valence: value of outcomes (promotions)(high valance, high opportunities)(HOPE)
  • E to P expectancy: probability that effort will lead to desired performance (Effort to Performance)
  • P to O expectancy: probability that performance will produce desired outcome (Performance to Outcomes [pay recognition, other rewards])
  • Motivation = Valence * EtoP * PtoO

Reinforcement theory: tools used

  1. Positive reinforcement: desirable consequence strengthens behavior (praise for a job well done)(pay raise)(management support, and social reinforcement)
  2. Avoidance learning (negative reinforcement): withholding unpleasant consequence strengthens behavior (stop yelling at employee, and they will work better)
  3. Punishment: unpleasant consequence weakens behavior (scolding, write ups, suspension)
  4. Extinction: no consequence weakens behavior (removal of a pleasant consequence)

Job Design for Motivation

  • Job design: application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction (3 types)
  • Job simplification: reduce the number of tasks a single person must do (one person to a task is good job simplification)
  • Job Rotation: move employees from one job to another (performing more tasks)(popular in production teams)
  • Job enlargement: combine a series of tasks into one new, broader job (response to too simplified jobs)(increases job satisfaction)

Job characteristics Model

  • Core job dimensions
  • Critical Psychological states
  • Personal and Work Outcomes

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MGMT 3/21

Termination Types

  1. retire
  2. depart voluntarily (find new job)
  3. fired

Termination

  • value of termination for maintaining an effective workforce is two fold
  • poor performers can be dismissed
  • employers can use exit interviews in a positive manner

Chapter 13: Motivation

Motivation

  • forces that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action (or goal)… 4 steps
  • Need: creates desire to fulfill needs (food, recognition, achievement)
  • Behavior: results in actions to fulfill needs
  • Rewards: satisfy needs; intrinsic or extrinsic rewards
  • Feedback: reward informs person whether behavior was appropriate and should be used again

Types of rewards

  • Intrinsic: satisfaction a person receives in the process of performing a particular action (interesting work, learning new skills, personal work)
  • Extrinsic: given by another person, typically managers (raise, bonus, promotion, vacation time, benefits, good benefits)

Foundations of Motivation

  • Contemporary
  • Human Resources
  • Human Relations
  • Traditional

Traditional View

  • systematic analysis of an employee’s job
  • economic rewards for high performance
  • efficiency

Human Relations

  • noneconomic rewards seemed more important
  • workers studied as people and the concept of social man was born

Human Resources

  • introduce the concept of the whole person
  • employees are complex and motivated by many factors

Contemporary

  • content theories: stress the analysis of underlying human needs (focus on first step)
  • process theories: concern the thought processes that influence behavior (second step)
  • reinforcement theories: focus on employee learning of desired work behaviors (step 3 and 4)

Content Theories

  • emphasize the needs that motivate people
  • hierarchy of needs theory (people motivated by factors; some factors more important that others)(order of needs: phisiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization)
  • ERG theory: modification/simplification of Maslows’ hierarchy of needs; three needs (in order): 1. Existence needs (the needs for physical well being) 2. Relatedness Needs: the need for satisfactory relationships with others 3. Growth needs: human potentials, personal growth, and increases competence
  • Aquired needs theory: Achievement (especially over difficult tasks), power (influence others), affiliation (accepted by others)has no lower ordered needs
  • Two-Factor Theory: two factors (motivators & hygiene factors); area of satisfaction is where motivators (schievement, recognition) influence level of satisfaction; area of dissatisfaction is where hygiene factors(working conditions, pay and security, relationships) influence levels of dissatisfaction… if they have hygiene factors, it does not mean they will be satisfied
  • differences between Maslow and ERG: Maslow says that you move up, ERG says you can move down &&&& Maslow said they can activiate one need at a time, ERG says that people can have multiple needs at one time

Equity theory

  • outcomes of self / inputs of self = outcomes of referent / inputs of referent

Methods for Reducing perceived inequities

  • change inputs
  • change outcomes
  • distort perceptions (I don’t get paid well but I’m fine with it)
  • Leave job

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MGMT 3/19

Job Analysis and Recruiting (information collected)

  • work activities
  • tools and equipment used to do the job
  • context in which the job is performed
  • personnel requirements for performing the job
  • Job description: written description of the basic tasks, duties, and responsibilities required of an employee holding a particular job
  • Job specification: a written summary of the qualifications needed to successfully perform a job

Selection

  • Selection: the process of determining the skills, abilities, and other attributes a person needs to perform a particular job
  • Validity: relationship between an applicant’s score on a selection device and his or her future job performance
  • If someone scores well on a selection test and it is valid, there is a good chance they will succeed in their job

Interviews

  • Unstructured interviews: free flow of questions (ask whatever they want)
  • Structured interviews: interviewer uses standard set of prepared questions (more validity)

Interviewing an Applicant (from Employer’s View)

  1. Know what you want
  2. Use open-ended questions
  3. Do not ask irrelevant questions (that relate to job description/specification)
  4. Do not rush the interview
  5. Do not rely on your memory (take notes)

Selection Tests

  1. Aptitude: testing future performance (SAT)
  2. Physical Ability: designed for workers
  3. Cognitive Ability (three types assessed): verbal, quantitative, and reasoning skills
  4. Personality: Big Five: agreeableness, emotional stability, openness,…(most widely used test)
  5. Work Sample: select a sample from the really work and require them to do it
  6. Assessment Centers: most complex test; use simulation to check the managerial skills

Determining Training Needs

  • Work Keys needs assessment
  • Communication, problem solving and interpersonal
  1. Job analysis
  2. Test Employee skills
  3. Compare employee skills to required skills

Training Methods

  • Classroom/Presentation: lecture used most often (about 90%)
  • Hands-on: increases participation
  • Team Training: shares knowledge, skills, and abilities

Performance Appraisal (360 degree feedback is the best)

  • managers
  • customers
  • self
  • peers
  • subordinates

Errors in Performance Appraisal

  • Similar-to-me: similar qualities (demographic) in boss and gets better rating
  • Errors in distribution: leniency, strictness, Central tendency
  • Halo & Horn: the boss responds to a positive/negative performance dimension, and it dictates whether the performance is good (halo) or bad (horn)

Compensation

  • Core Compensation: monetary rewards
  • Compensation and Benefits:non-monetary rewards

Elements of Core Compensation

  • Base Pay: hourly pay, wage, annual salary
  • Base Pay Adjustment: cost-of-living, merit pay, incentive pay, person-focused pay(to master skills)

Employee Benefits

  • Legally Required
  • Discretionary benefits

Discretionary benefits

  • Protection Programs: pension, retirement, unemployment
  • Pay-for-time-not-worked: holidays
  • Services: phones, transportation, child care

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MGMT 3/14

Chapter 11: Managing Human Resource Systems

Human Resource Management

  • the design and application of formal systems to ensure the effective and efficient use of human talent to accomplish organizational goals
  • Human resources lead to competitive advantage

Three Key elements of Human resource management

  1. All managers are resource managers (must be part of hiring, firing, benefits, appraisals etc.)
  2. Employees are viewed as assets (valuable; people are not machines, they have ideas and suggestion)employees lead to competitive advantage
  3. Matching process, integrating the organizational goals with employee’s needs

Strategic HR Management goals (there are 3)

  1. Attract Effective workforce: HRM planning, Job analysis, Recruiting, Selecting
  2. Develop an effective workforce: training, development appraisal
  3. Maintain an Effective Workforce: wage/salary, benefits, labor relations, terminations

Environmental Influences on HRM

  • Competitive strategy: Building human capital (skills, knowledge, abilities), developing globalization (international HRM), using information technology (HRIS – computerized employee information system; data) / (these three create competitive advantage)
  • Federal legislation: equal employment opportunity (no discrimination based on age, race, religion)

HR Information System input

  • personal data (name, age, gender, race, home #)
  • work history (previous employers)
  • personal appraisal (date and result of appraisal)
  • promotion data (previous promotion records, special knowledge and skills for next promotion)
  • educational data (college, graduate school, training programs)
  • company employment history (previous positions in the company)

Attracting an Effective Workforce

  1. HR planning: retirement, growth, resignations
  2. Choose Recruiting Sources: want ads, Head hunters, Internet
  3. Select the Candidate: application, interview, tests
  4. Welcome new Employee

HR Planning

  1. forecasting of HR needs and the matching of individuals with expected vacancies
  2. what new technologies are emerging?
  3. what is volume of business likely to be in the next 5-10 years?
  4. What is turnover rate? How much is avoidable? (if any)

Forecasting Demand and Supply

  • Internal Factors: employees education level, up to date knowledge, specialized skills, transfer opportunities, turnover
  • External Factors: political, sociocultural, international, industry (trends), economy (unemployment rate)

Recruiting

  • the process of developing a pool of qualified job applicants
  • Internal recruiting
  • External recruiting
  • Job analysis
  • Person-Job fit
  • Person-Organization fit (linking values and beliefs)

Internal Recruitment

  • Promotion from within
  • a pool of applicants who already work for the company
  • career path is a planned sequence of jobs
  • improves employee morale and motivation
  • reduced employer time and cost
  • increases workers’ chances of success in new jobs

Methods for External Recruiting

  • Advertising
  • Employee referrals
  • walk-ins
  • Private employment agencies
  • state employment services
  • Career conferences
  • Internet job sites

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