MGMT 4/18

Chapter 15: Communication and Control

What is Communication

  • process by which information is exchanged and understood by 2 or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior
  • Manager: 80% every working day in direct communication with others
  • Manager: 20% every work day in communication in the form of reading and writing (12 minutes/hour
  • it is a two way street

Communication Process Model

  • Sender: encodes message (trying to communicate/convey with email, phone, face-to-face, radio, internet)
  • Receiver: decodes message (gets and tries to interpret information)
  • Channel: return the message encoded
  • Communication noise: communication barriers (the telephone game)
  • Feedback Loop: the receiver responds to the sender by creating a return message; with feedback, communication is two ways

Channel Richness: the amount of information that is transmitted during a communication episode (pyramid on ppt)(from top to bottom

  • Face-to-face talk: fast feedback, body language
  • telephone
  • email, IM, intranet
  • memos, letters
  • formal reports, bulletins: slow feedback

formal Channels of Communication (3 channels)

  • Upward Communication: problems and exceptions; suggestions for improvement; performance reports; grievances and disputes; financial and accounting information
  • (Horizontal) Coordination: Intradepartmental problem solving; interdepartmental coordination, change initiatives and improvements
  • Downward Communication: implementation of goals & strategies; job instructions/rationale; procedures & practices; performance feedback; indoctrination(look up)

Organizational Control Focus

  • Feedforward Control
  • Concurrent Control
  • Feedback Control
  • Organizational control is monitoring progress in order to attain a goal (definition)

Feedforward Control

  • Focus is on: human resources, material resources, and financial resources
  • Purpose: identify and prevent deviations
  • Sometimes called preliminary or preventative control
  • ex. pre-employment drug testing, inspect raw materials, hire only college graduates
  • Focuses on inputs

Concurrent Control

  • Monitors ongoing activities to ensure consistency with performance standards
  • Assesses current work activities (evaluate performance)
  • relies on performance standards (formulate and maintain standards)
  • includes rules and regulations (managers must communicate the regulations)
  • ex. adaptive culture, employee self-control, total quality management
  • is focused on ongoing processes

Feedback Control

  • Focus: organization’s outputs (products)
  • sometimes called post action control or output control
  • after the problem occurs
  • ex. performance evaluation, survey customers, final quality inspection
  • focus is on output

Feedback control Model Four steps

  1. Establish standards of standards
  2. measure actual performance
  3. compare performance to standards
  4. if adequate: do nothing or provide reinforcement; if inadequate: take corrective action (adjust standards or performance)
  5. get the rest of the ppt chart

Chapters for TEST: 1, 3, 5, 10, 14, 15

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