MGMT 4/9

Chapter 14: Leadership

The Nature of Leadership

  1. Occurs among people
  2. involves the use of influence (direct behavior)
  3. is used to attain goals
  4. the ability to influence people to attain goals

Leadership Traits Theory

  • Traits: early efforts to understand leadership success focuses on leader’s personal characteristics
  • Great Man Approach: early research focused on leaders who had achieved a level of greatness
  • Steps to Great Man Approach: find out what made them great & find people with the same traits

Leadership Traits

  1. Drive: achievement, success, motivation
  2. Desire to Lead: desire to motivate others
  3. Honesty & Integrity: must be honest, otherwise they cannot be trusted
  4. Self-Confidence: must believe in their own abilities
  5. Emotional Stability: remain calm
  6. Cognitive ability: problem solving
  7. Knowledge of business: knowledge of business trends; how they make key decisions

Behavioral Approaches: Ohio State Studies 4 leadership styles

  • Consideration: people-oriented behavior; mindful of subordinates; establishes mutual trust (classified both by high and low)
  • Initiating Structure: task-oriented behavior; directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment; typically gives instructions, spends time planning, and emphasizes deadlines (classified in high and low)
  • When both are high, that is the most efficient outcome

Behavioral Approaches: Michigan Studies

  • University of Michigan compared the behavior of effective and ineffective supervisors
  • Employee centered leaders: high concern about employees; help employees to solve problems; motivate employees; more effective
  • Job-Centered Leaders: focus on job productivity; give clear job instructions; human relations not important

Behavioral Approaches: Leadership Grid (University of Texas)

  • Builds on the work of Ohio State and Michigan studies
  • Two-dimensional leadership theory that measures the leader’s concern for people and for production
  • people + production (similar to other 2 studies)
  • 9 point scale (low to high)
  • Five leadership styles/li>;;;

The five leadership Styles in Leadership Grid

  1. Authority-Compliance: efficiency in operation results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree (9,1) on graph
  2. Country Club Management: Thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo (1,9) on graph
  3. Middle-of-the-Road Management: Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level
  4. Team Management: work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect
  5. Impoverished Management: Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization

Contingency Approaches

  • Relationship between leadership styles and situations (3 theories)

Situational theory (contingency)

  • focus on employees (because the employees carry out the leader’s effectiveness)
  • Two Dimensions: task behavior and relationship behavior
  • 4 styles: delegating (low relation, low behavior), telling (low r, high b), participating (high r, low b), selling (high r, high b)
  • follower readiness: the degree to which people are willing and able to follow directions
  • get graph from ppt

Contingency theory (2nd contingency theory)

  • leaders need to know whether they have a relationship- or task-oriented style
  • leaders should diagnose the situation and determine the favorableness of the following three areas: leader-member relations, Task structure, Leader position power
  • Task-oriented leaders are more effective when the situation os either highly favorable or highly unfavorable
  • Relationship-oriented leaders are more effective in situations of moderate favorability
  • cannot change persons leadership style… must change situation or replace the leader


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