MGMT 4/2

Chapter 13

2nd process motivation theory: Expectancy Theory

  • Valence: value of outcomes (promotions)(high valance, high opportunities)(HOPE)
  • E to P expectancy: probability that effort will lead to desired performance (Effort to Performance)
  • P to O expectancy: probability that performance will produce desired outcome (Performance to Outcomes [pay recognition, other rewards])
  • Motivation = Valence * EtoP * PtoO

Reinforcement theory: tools used

  1. Positive reinforcement: desirable consequence strengthens behavior (praise for a job well done)(pay raise)(management support, and social reinforcement)
  2. Avoidance learning (negative reinforcement): withholding unpleasant consequence strengthens behavior (stop yelling at employee, and they will work better)
  3. Punishment: unpleasant consequence weakens behavior (scolding, write ups, suspension)
  4. Extinction: no consequence weakens behavior (removal of a pleasant consequence)

Job Design for Motivation

  • Job design: application of motivational theories to the structure of work for improving productivity and satisfaction (3 types)
  • Job simplification: reduce the number of tasks a single person must do (one person to a task is good job simplification)
  • Job Rotation: move employees from one job to another (performing more tasks)(popular in production teams)
  • Job enlargement: combine a series of tasks into one new, broader job (response to too simplified jobs)(increases job satisfaction)

Job characteristics Model

  • Core job dimensions
  • Critical Psychological states
  • Personal and Work Outcomes


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