MGMT 3/21

Termination Types

  1. retire
  2. depart voluntarily (find new job)
  3. fired


  • value of termination for maintaining an effective workforce is two fold
  • poor performers can be dismissed
  • employers can use exit interviews in a positive manner

Chapter 13: Motivation


  • forces that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action (or goal)… 4 steps
  • Need: creates desire to fulfill needs (food, recognition, achievement)
  • Behavior: results in actions to fulfill needs
  • Rewards: satisfy needs; intrinsic or extrinsic rewards
  • Feedback: reward informs person whether behavior was appropriate and should be used again

Types of rewards

  • Intrinsic: satisfaction a person receives in the process of performing a particular action (interesting work, learning new skills, personal work)
  • Extrinsic: given by another person, typically managers (raise, bonus, promotion, vacation time, benefits, good benefits)

Foundations of Motivation

  • Contemporary
  • Human Resources
  • Human Relations
  • Traditional

Traditional View

  • systematic analysis of an employee’s job
  • economic rewards for high performance
  • efficiency

Human Relations

  • noneconomic rewards seemed more important
  • workers studied as people and the concept of social man was born

Human Resources

  • introduce the concept of the whole person
  • employees are complex and motivated by many factors


  • content theories: stress the analysis of underlying human needs (focus on first step)
  • process theories: concern the thought processes that influence behavior (second step)
  • reinforcement theories: focus on employee learning of desired work behaviors (step 3 and 4)

Content Theories

  • emphasize the needs that motivate people
  • hierarchy of needs theory (people motivated by factors; some factors more important that others)(order of needs: phisiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization)
  • ERG theory: modification/simplification of Maslows’ hierarchy of needs; three needs (in order): 1. Existence needs (the needs for physical well being) 2. Relatedness Needs: the need for satisfactory relationships with others 3. Growth needs: human potentials, personal growth, and increases competence
  • Aquired needs theory: Achievement (especially over difficult tasks), power (influence others), affiliation (accepted by others)has no lower ordered needs
  • Two-Factor Theory: two factors (motivators & hygiene factors); area of satisfaction is where motivators (schievement, recognition) influence level of satisfaction; area of dissatisfaction is where hygiene factors(working conditions, pay and security, relationships) influence levels of dissatisfaction… if they have hygiene factors, it does not mean they will be satisfied
  • differences between Maslow and ERG: Maslow says that you move up, ERG says you can move down &&&& Maslow said they can activiate one need at a time, ERG says that people can have multiple needs at one time

Equity theory

  • outcomes of self / inputs of self = outcomes of referent / inputs of referent

Methods for Reducing perceived inequities

  • change inputs
  • change outcomes
  • distort perceptions (I don’t get paid well but I’m fine with it)
  • Leave job


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