Management 2/20

Chapter 7

Model of changes

  1. Environmental Forces: monitor global competition, customers, competitors, and other factors
  2. Internal Forces: consider plans, goals, company problems, and needs
  3. Need for Change: evaluate problems and opportunities, and define needed changes in technology, products, people, and culture (SWOT analysis used to evaluate need for change)
  4. Implement change: use force-field analysis, tactics for overcoming resistance

Organizational Development

  • improve an organization’s long-term performance and health
  • three elements:
  1. team building
  2. Survey feeback
  3. Large group intervention: new approach; related to radical organizational changes, goes very fast

Differences in OD

  • Large group focuses on entire system; Traditional OD hone in on a specific problem
  • Traditional’s information source is limited to organization; large-group intervention is widely shared
  • Traditional time frame is gradual; large group is fast
  • Traditional learning is individual, small group; large-group is the whole organization

Resistance to Change

  1. Self-Interest
  2. Lack of Understanding and Trust
  3. Uncertainty
  4. Different Assessments and Goals

Overcoming Resistance

  • Communication (when change is technical)
  • Education (when change is technical)
  • Participation (when users need to feel involved; users have power to resist)
  • Negotiation (group has power over implementation)
  • Coercion (not commonly used; a last resort; crisis exists)(GM closing plants)
  • Top Management Support (users doubt legitimacy of change; involves multiple departments or reallocation of resources)

Organizational Change
adoption of new ideas or behaviors by the organization
Organizational Development
a philosophy and collection of planned change interventions

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